Archive for the ‘hard cider’ Category

Recent questions regarding Hard Cider Recipes and Natural (Wild) yeast starters

Question:
 “I just watched both of your cider yeast starter videos, I thought they were great, very helpful.  Is it possible to make the yeast starter with the by-products from when you press apples or use a juicer?”
Paraphrased for brevity

Answer:
The process I performed in the videos is one way to create an apple yeast starter when you do not have access to sufficient apples to press or do not have an apple press.

When using an Apple Press, theoretically wild yeast will already be in the resulting juice as it should have been present on the skins of the pressed apples at the start, therefore you shouldn’t need to add additional yeast from anywhere else.  That is of course unless you are looking to produce a specific result such as driving up the ABV (Alcohol By Volume content).  Pressed apple juice is exactly what you need and theoretically all that you need to make hard cider.  If you have insufficient pressed juice to make a full batch of hard cider then you could simply add additional purchased juice once the starter is working.   Bottom line, pressed juice should contain enough natural yeast to start fermentation.

Factors that may affect how well the apple juice actually ferments are many though, i.e. your source of apples, if they have been grown without insecticides, you have not washed off most of the yeast and what varieties of wild yeast happen to be present on them.

Using a juicer may produce the similar results in terms of fermentation.  The resulting mix though may produce quite a different and probably very cloudy cider as juicing liquidizes everything and the resulting mix is quite different from pressed apples.  Most people seem to see a better clearer result from pressing though I personally have not tried producing cider after liquidizing apples.

Recent questions regarding Hard Cider Recipes and Natural (Wild) yeast starters

Question:
“Will this work with grapes or other fruit?”
Paraphrased for brevity

Answer:
I’ll assume this question is referring to the Natural Cider Yeast Starter experiment and not Hard Cider Kits.  Clearly there are plenty of kits for making wine from grapes.

I’m also assuming that the question is not asking if you can make cider using a yeast starter from yeasts found on grapes?  If you are, then the short answer is, yes.  A lot of people use wine yeast when they ferment cider.  They do this mainly because wine and champagne yeast is inexpensive; available everywhere and generally produces a good and reliable result.

On the subject of producing a wild yeast starter using fresh grapes, either to ultimately ferment cider or wine, the first point to clarify is that purchased (cultured) yeasts are not unnatural. What we are really talking about is making use of the wild yeasts found on the skins of fruit rather than making use of yeasts that are refined and sold commercially for the purposes of fermentation.

Red Grapes Wild Yeast

The first thing to appreciate is that there are many, literally hundreds of yeasts that can be found on the surfaces of grapes and fruit generally.  Historically, making use of these is how Hard Cider and wines were originally made.  Over time though it was discovered that certain strains of yeast performed much better than others, these were then refined and improved for certain desirable qualities. 

You can at least in theory take any fruit, being careful to choose ones that have not been treated with chemical pesticides and create a natural yeast starter .  Hopefully most organically grown fruits will fit this bill.  The resulting yeast starter can then be used to ferment Hard Cider or wine. 

The difficulty of the process is in the unpredictability of what particular strains of wild yeast happens to be present on the fruit in question.   Hence the Natural Cider Yeast Starter experiment and the 1 in 4 success rate we achieved.  We have previously achieved a 50% success rate but each time we do it we get a different result. 

Hard Cider Made From Wild Yeast Found On Apples

In making Hard Cider we chose to explore the wild yeast starter process due (apart from the sheer fun of experimentation) to the unique nature of apples and the more limited availability of commercial cider specific yeast.  Also we have found that the resulting taste that can be achieved with some wild yeasts found on apples produces a uniquely appley taste quite different from wine yeasts.   We have also done this successfully with pears, in that case producing a very smooth and pleasant Hard (Pear) Cider.

Bottom line, our recommendation is that if you are looking to experiment with wild yeasts, get several batches going at once using different sources for your fruit as you are bound to get failures or poor results with some of them.  Also the comparison between the batches provides good perspective on what is good and what is not.  It is also good fun to try different juices such as pear, blackcurrant, mango etc. and ferment them.  If on the other hand you want to produce only one larger batch and therefore want predictability it might be a much better bet to work with a commercially produced yeast of which there are many to choose from.

There are many commercially produced yeast to choose from

As the example above shows there are many commercially produced yeasts to choose from.